03 July, 2017

/etc/hosts - the gift that keeps on giving

/etc/hosts

The gift that keeps on giving, when you're paid on an hourly rate to do tech support. It is like the regexps of DNS: "I know, I'll modify /etc/hosts" ... now you have two problems.

  • You modify /etc/hosts because you want to override the global DNS view of name N.
  • Things works!
  • Because things work, you don't undo your change in /etc/hosts. After all, things work.
  • A year passes.
  • You forget that you made the change.
  • Suddenly on your machine only, but no one else's, you can't access the website at N any more.
  • Hours of debugging!

Why modify /etc/hosts? Testing a new version of a site under real name (only on your own machines though), or because DNS is broken and you don't know why, or because you didn't plan your DNS change so now the caches are not updating fast enough and you are impatient.

/etc/hosts doesn't have an "eventual consistency" mehanism in place - DNS caches eventually expire and at least give vaguely consistent behaviour across the whole internet over a long enough period of time. /etc/hosts will never converge.

26 June, 2017

ffmpeg animated gif custom palettes

I used ffmpeg to make the animated gifs for my gallery of NeoPixel goggles patterns.

In the process I discovered that as well as the expected fairly straightforward conversion mode, ffmpeg -i mymovie.mov mymovie.gif, there is another mode which can generate a custom palette. Because apparently by default, a default palette is used.

That is a slightly more awkward two step process, described for example here, but at least for my goggles GIFs looks way better (to me) although turning out to be four times the size:

17 June, 2017

Galois LFSR PRNG in NeoPixel goggles

I've been playing with software to run on my Adafruit Neopixel Goggles. The software gets to make pretty patterns on 32 x 24-bit RGB LEDs arranged in two rings.

One of the modes picks random colours to change each ring to. The Arduino stack supplies a random() function to do this, but it seemed to take up about 600 bytes of the limited 5kb flash program memory on the in-goggles microcontroller.

I wondered if I could make a smaller-but-less-random generator. After all, the colour pattern does not need to be cryptographically secure. I'm just trying to avoid getting the same sequence of colours every time.

Someone pointed me at Linear Feedback Shift Register PRNGs and I implemented one based around a description in Wikipedia. I chose the Galois one because pistols at dawn.

That seemed to work well for the basic generation of random numbers, but the Arduino always started up with the same seed, and so gave the same sequence of colours each time. Luckily, there are 512 bytes of EEPROM on this microcontroller and so I used two other those to generate and store a seed to be used next time.

Initially, I generated two random bytes at power-on, and stored those into the EEPROM. However, this rapidly proved to have a really short period: there were only two different patterns being displayed by the goggles in this mode!

So, next, which seems to work better, the code now initialises the PRNG from EEPROM, takes a single bit from it (and discards it) and then writes out the PRNG state into the EEPROM. That means that the start state advances by one bit every boot.

Code for the goggles is here on github: https://github.com/benclifford/goggles.

14 June, 2017

An Idris implementation of a reddit bot.

I wrote and host lsc-todaybot, a bot that moves the [TODAY] flair around on reddit.com/r/LondonSocialClub, a subreddit dedicated to social activities in London. I wrote it in Haskell, and over the last year or so have used it as a simple application for experimenting with different Haskell libraries and techniques. For example, I used it to learn about extensible effects (and gave a talk about it at the London Haskell meetup).

I've been interested in the dependently typed programming language Idris and someone claimed it was pacman-complete - that is, you can write Pacman in it. So rather than playing round with proofs and all that dependent-type gubbins, I set out to rewrite todaybot in Idris.

It's here: https://github.com/benclifford/idris-todaybot

It's not beautiful. But it works well enough to be running alongside the Haskell implementation.

I've littered the source with QUESTION/DISCUSSION blocks, but basically I had to patch up an existing JSON library, interface an HTTP library (I chose libcurl), and struggle with a whole new style of error message (possibly the hardest bit as I'm used to error messages really leading you to the right answer).

There's almost no use of dependent types, but I did find a straightforward place to make use of them, in the parameters to this libcurl function:

CURLcode curl_easy_setopt(CURL *handle, CURLoption option, parameter);

where the type of the supplied parameter depends on the particular option chosen: for example a pointer to a callback function, or a boolean verbosity level.

07 June, 2017

Fixing up my MSF radio clock

One of the first hardware things I did with a Raspberry Pi (sometime around March 2013) was interface it to a cheap 60kHz radio clock board, and write some driver software to interface it to ntpd. That was in one house, then in another, and then got dismantled, put in a box, and smashed up a bit. Based on the

I spent a few hours yesterday fixing it up: resoldering the antenna onto the circuit board, getting rid of the dodgy soldering and putting it on a prototype board, putting a capacitor across the power supply because I heard rumour that might make it receive better (it doesn't seem to), and implementing parity checking in the decoder.

It's still terribly awkward to position: I have it velcroed up on top of a curtain rail to try to get it high and away from all my other electronics and it is still very sensitive to antenna positioning; and it is still estimated by ntpd to be less accurate than getting time off the internet; and even with parity checking it is still fairly common for it to decode a time that is wrong.

But it has a nice flashing red LED.

Software: https://github.com/benclifford/msf

05 March, 2017

toad.com open mail server

So there was some controversy decades ago the past about John Gilmore's public open SMTP relay server. I wondered if it still existed.

It does!

benc@dogger:~$ telnet new.toad.com 25
Trying 209.237.225.253...
Connected to new.toad.com.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 new.toad.com ESMTP Sendmail 8.12.9/8.12.9; Sun, 5 Mar 2017 08:12:44 -0800
EHLO dogger.cqx.ltd.uk
250-new.toad.com Hello dynamic-91.hawaga.org.uk [90.155.94.91] (may be forged), pleased to meet you
250-ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES
250-PIPELINING
250-8BITMIME
250-SIZE 89000000
250-DSN
250-ETRN
250-AUTH GSSAPI
250-STARTTLS
250-DELIVERBY
250 HELP
MAIL FROM:benc@hawaga.org.uk
250 2.1.0 benc@hawaga.org.uk... Sender ok
RCPT TO:benc@hawaga.org.uk
250 2.1.5 benc@hawaga.org.uk... Recipient ok
DATA
354 Enter mail, end with "." on a line by itself
Subject: test 1

test
.
250 2.0.0 v25GCiXw019546 Message accepted for delivery
221 2.0.0 new.toad.com closing connection

Return-Path: 
Received: from new.toad.com (new.toad.com [209.237.225.253])
    by smtp-in.biscay.cqx.ltd.uk (8.14.4/8.14.4/Debian-2ubuntu2.1) with ESMTP id v25F9dpo009917
    for <benc@hawaga.org.uk>; Sun, 5 Mar 2017 15:09:40 GMT
Received: from dogger.cqx.ltd.uk (dynamic-91.hawaga.org.uk [90.155.94.91] (may be forged))
    by new.toad.com (8.12.9/8.12.9) with ESMTP id v25F96Xw016104
    for benc@hawaga.org.uk; Sun, 5 Mar 2017 07:09:28 -0800
Date: Sun, 5 Mar 2017 07:09:06 -0800
From: benc@hawaga.org.uk
Message-Id: <201703051509.v25F96Xw016104@new.toad.com>
Subject: test 1

02 February, 2017

Why a US dollar and a Euro are roughly the same value.

A US dollar and a Euro are roughly the same value: 1 USD is about 1 EUR, very roughly (rather than, say, 1 USD = 1000 ITL = 10^25 ZWD = 60 RUR).

There is history behind that which I've not seen presented in one place. Here is my vague understanding of it.

For a few decades before the early 1970s, the Bretton Woods system fixed USD and gold (at $35 = 1oz) and many other currencies were pegged to gold/USD.

This ended in 1971, when the USD would no longer freely converted into gold by the US government, and major world currencies became free floating.

Around that time, although at little bit before, the IMF Special Drawing Right came into existence. This was defined, at the start, to equal 1 USD, which it did until the end of Bretton Woods, but it wa. The only time I've really encountered this in real life was in small print on the back of aeroplane tickets, where compensation amounts were denominated in SDRs.

The SDR was composed of a basket of different world currencies (at time of writing, USD, EUR, CNY, JPY, GBP in defined ratios) so as the USD-value of those component currencies change, so does the USD-value of 1 SDR, rather than being fixed to the initial 1 SDR = 1 USD ratio. Over time, though, the exchange rate has stayed very roughly 1:1

In Europe, they invented the European Unit of Account which was a basket of specifically European currencies. This was scaled so that at the start, 1 unit of account was equal to 1 SDR (and so inherited the property of being roughly 1 USD). Being composed of a different based from the SDR, it varied in value with respect to both the SDR and the USD.

Next came the ECU (which was invented just before I was born), another basket of European currencies which replaced the European unit of account at 1:1

Finally, along came the Euro, an actual currency with paper notes and metal coins. This replaced the ECU again at 1:1, but again was a different basket: While the ECU basket had included GBP (British pounds), DKK (Danish crowns) and GRD (Greek Drachmas), the Euro did not include those.

So the Euro has the US dollar as its great-great-grandfather through a series of basket currencies, each branched from the previous at a 1:1 ratio.

Of course, all that 1:1 substition could have gone very differently: the Zimbabwe dollar was equivalent to a Rhodesian Dollar which was equivalent to half a Rhodesian Pound (as happened with most pound decimalisations) which replaced the Rhodesia and Nyasaland pound which replaced the Southern Rhodesian Pound, equivalent to a pound sterling - but the GBP:ZWD exchange rate at the very end was something like 1:10^25.